Product Description

The Triton Go Servo Drive is an ultra-compact solution providing top performance, advanced networking and built-in safety, as well as a fully featured motion controller. It can control multiple motor types and supports almost any feedback sensor including absolute serial encoders.

Its incredibly compact design includes multiple communication ports carrying CANopen protocol, and thus enabling a wide choice of interfacing methods. Its small form factor, its capability to operate up to 110 ºC and the bunch of features that come packed with it makes Triton a valid OEM for critical-size applications.

The Triton Go Servo Drive has been designed with efficiency in mind. It incorporates cutting-edge MOSFET technology as well as optimized control algorithms to provide the perfect trade-off between EMI and performance. 

Triton Go Servo Drive is provided with several general purpose inputs and outputs designed for 5 V TTL logic but tolerant up to 24 V and fully rugged. By using these inputs and outputs it is possible to implement alarm signals, connect digital sensors, activate external devices (LEDs, actuators, solenoids, etc.). Some of the digital and analog inputs can also be used as command / target sources.

Triton part numbering

TritonGoProductIdentification

   

Product Ordering part number Status Image
Triton Core TRI-7/48-C-P
ACTIVE
TRI-4/48-C-P
ACTIVE
TRI-1/48-C-P
ACTIVE
TRI-7/48-E-P
ACTIVE
TRI-4/48-E-P
ACTIVE
TRI-1/48-E-P
ACTIVE
Triton Go TRI-7/48-C-C
ACTIVE
TRI-4/48-C-C
ACTIVE
TRI-1/48-C-C
ACTIVE
TRI-7/48-E-C
ACTIVE
TRI-4/48-E-C
ACTIVE
TRI-1/48-E-C
ACTIVE

Changes in Part Numbers

 Part numbers have changed from version 1.0.0 due to a current re-scaling of the whole product range. Follow this equivalence to identify your old Triton:

  • Version 1.0.0 1.1.0 or later 
  • TRI-8/48-C-P TRI-7/48-C-P
  • TRI-2/48-C-P TRI-4/48-C-P
  • TRI-0.5/48-C-P TRI-1/48-C-P
  • TRI-8/48-E-P TRI-7/48-E-P 
  • TRI-2/48-E-P TRI-4/48-E-P
  • TRI-0.5/48-E-P TRI-1/48-E-P
  • TRI-8/48-C-C TRI-7/48-C-C
  • TRI-2/48-C-C TRI-4/48-C-C
  • TRI-0.5/48-C-C TRI-1/48-C-C
  • TRI-8/48-E-C TRI-7/48-E-C
  • TRI-2/48-E-C TRI-4/48-E-C
  • TRI-0.5/48-E-C TRI-1/48-E-C

Specifications

A list of features of the Triton Go Servo Drive is shown next. 

Electrical and power specifications

Part number TRI-1/48-y-C TRI-4/48-y-C TRI-7/48-y-C

Power supply voltage

+8 VDC to +48 VDC

Transient peak voltage 65 VDC
Internal DC bus capacitance 20 µF
Minimum motor inductance
200 µH
(Triton still can control motors with lower inductances. Check our Knowledge Base)

Nominal phase continuous
current (BLDC mode)

0.67 ARMS

3.33 ARMS
(with heatsink)

5.6 ARMS
(with heatsink)

Nominal phase continuous
current (DC mode)

1 ADC

5 ADC
(with heatsink)

6.3 ADC
(with heatsink)

Maximum phase peak current

1 ADC
(continuous)

5 ADC
(continuous, with heatsink)

8.5 ADC
(5 s, with heatsink)

Current sense range ± 1.02 A ± 5.10 A ± 12.7 A
Current sense resolution 1.99 mA/count 9.96 mA/count 24.8 mA/count
Shunt braking transistor  Shunt braking transistor on board. 8 A maximum current. Dimensioning a Shunt Resistor for Regenerative Braking
Cold plate 1.5 mm aluminum sheet 6082-T6.
Power connectors Screw terminal block 3.5 mm pitch
Standby power consumption

≤ 2.5 W (EtherCAT version TRI-x/48-E-C)

≤ 1.5 W (CAN version TRI-x/48-C-C)

Efficiency

>96% at the rated power and current

Motion control specifications

Motion control core Ingenia E-Core with EMCL2.

Supported motor types

  • Rotary brushless (trapezoidal and sinusoidal)
  • Linear brushless (trapezoidal and sinusoidal)
  • DC brushed
  • Rotary voice coil
  • Linear voice coil

Power stage PWM frequency

20 kHz (default)
80 kHz (alternative PWM frequency, configurable)

Current sensing

Precision current sense on phases A, B. (Phase C is generated digitally)
Accuracy is ± 1% full scale. 10 bit ADC resolution

Sensors for commutation

(brushless motors)

  • Digital Halls (Trapezoidal)
  • Analog Halls (Sinusoidal / Trapezoidal)
  • Quad. Incremental encoder (Sinusoidal / Trapezoidal)
  • PWM encoder (Sinusoidal / Trapezoidal)
  • Analog potentiometer (Sinusoidal / Trapezoidal)
  • Sin-Cos encoder (Sinusoidal / Trapezoidal)
  • Absolute encoder SSI over RS-485 (Sinusoidal / Trapezoidal)
Sensors for servo loops
  • Digital Halls 
  • Analog Halls 
  • Quad. Incremental encoder
  • PWM encoder 
  • Analog potentiometer 
  • Sin-Cos encoder
  • Absolute encoder SSI (over RS-485) 
  • DC tachometer

Supported target sources

  • Network communication – USB 
  • Network communication – CANopen
  • Network communication – RS-485
  • Network communication – EtherCAT
  • Standalone (execution from internal EEPROM memory)
  • Analog inputs
  • Step and Direction (Pulse and Direction)
  • PWM command
  • Encoder Following / Electronic Gearing

Inputs/outputs and protections

General purpose Inputs and
outputs
  • 4 x non-isolated single-ended digital inputs. GPI1, GPI2, GPI3, GPI4 (5 V TTL logic, 24 V tolerant).
  • 2 x non-isolated high speed differential digital inputs. HS_GPI1, HS_GPI2 (5 V logic, 24 V tolerant).
  • 1 x (±10 V) differential analog input (12 bits). AN_IN2. (24 V tolerant).
  • 1 x 0 V... 5 V single ended analog input (12 bits). AN_IN1. (24 V tolerant).
  • 4 x open open drain digital outputs with a weak pull-up to 5 V. (24 V tolerant and 1 A; short-circuit and over-current protected).
Dedicated Inputs and outputs
  • 2 x isolated Safe Torque Off inputs. 5 to 30 V inputs.
  • 4 x open collector LED output (50 mA maximum). See Signalling LEDs section for more details.
Output Supplies
  • 1 x 5 V output supply for powering external circuitry (up to 200 mA)
  • 1 x 3.3 V output supply for powering external circuitry (up to 50 mA)

Protections

  • User configurable:
    • DC bus over-voltage
    • DC bus under-voltage
    • Drive over-temperature
    • Drive under-temperature
    • Over-current
    • Overload (I2t)
  • Short-circuit protections: 
    • Phase to DC bus
    • Phase to phase
    • Phase to GND
  • Mechanical limits for homing functions
  • Hall sequence/combination error
  • ESD protections in all inputs, outputs, feedbacks and communications
  • EMI protections (noise filters) in all inputs, outputs and feedbacks
  • Supply inverse polarity protection
  • High power transient voltage suppressor (600 W peak TVS diode)
  • Can drive an external power braking resistor in case of re-injection (up to 7 A)
Safe Torque Off 2x STO inputs, 5 V to 30 V isolated inputs
Motor Brake Motor brake output through a general purpose output (GPO1, GPO2, GPO3 or GPO4). Up to 24 V and 1 A.

Communications

Part number  TRI-x/48-C-C TRI-x/48-E-C
USB µUSB (2.0) vertical connector. The board can be supplied from USB for configuration purposes but will not power the motor.
Serial RS-485 full-duplex (compatible with RS-422), non-isolated.
(default 115200 bps, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, no flux control)
CANopen

Available. Non-isolated (1 Mbps by default). 120 Ω
termination not included on board. CiA-301, CiA-303,
CiA-305, CiA-306 and CiA-402 compliant. 

-
EtherCAT -

Available (magnetics included)

Environmental and mechanical specifications

Part number →

TRI-x/48-C-C TRI-x/48-E-C
Cold plate temperature
  • -40 ºC to +85 ºC full current (with appropriate heatsink) TRITON-96 - Getting issue details... STATUS
  • +85ºC to 110ºC derated current
Heat dissipation

Heat dissipation is affected mainly by the phase current (see below)

Maximum humidity

5% - 85% (non-condensing)

Horizontal dimensions 43 mm x 45 mm 
Maximum height 23.5 mm
Weight (exc. mating connectors) 34 g 42 g

Errata

First version of the datasheet indicates a maximum phase peak current of 13 ARMS (2 s) which is incorrect. Also the TRI-4/48-y-C was underrated. Find the latest datasheet available here.

Hardware revisions

Hardware revision

Individual board references

Description and changes

1.0.0

August 2016

i039-01H1-1.0.0

i039-01H2-1.0.0

i039-01H3-1.0.0

First product release.

1.1.0

November 2016

i039-01H1-1.1.0

i039-01H2-1.0.0

i039-01H3-1.1.0

Changed product current range naming (current resolution and range is exactly the same as before)

  • TRI-0.5/48 becomes TRI-1/48
  • TRI-2/48 becomes TRI-4/48
  • TRI-8/48 becomes TRI-7/48

Improved robustness of CAN / EtherCAT connectors.

Features added:

  • Analog Halls feedback
  • Analog (Sin-Cos) encoder feedback
  • RS-485 communications

Identifying the hardware revision

Hardware revision is screen printed on the board. 

Power and current ratings

TRI-4/48-x-P and TRI-7/48-x-P variants of Triton go are capable of providing the nominal current from -25 ºC to 85 ºC (temperature measured in the coldplate) with a 1.2 ºC/W heatsink attached by means of a low thermal resistance interface material. Above 85 ºC a current derating is required. TRI-1/48-x-P, on the other hand, does not require a heatsink attached to reach its nominal current.

In case of excessive power losses over-temperature will be detected, causing the drive to turn off. The system temperature is available in E-Core registers and is measured near the power stage. This temperature parameter can be accessed from USB 2.0, EtherCAT, CAN or RS485 serial interface and does not indicate the air temperature, but the temperature of the PCB. Above 110 ºC the Triton Go automatically turns off the power stage and stay in fault state avoiding any damage to the drive. The Fault LED will be activated and latched until temperature decreases below this threshold.

Drive safety is always ensured by its protections. However, by means of it, power losses and temperature will limit the allowable motor current.

Some parts of the Triton Go can exceed 110 ºC during operation, especially at high load levels.
Do not touch the Triton Go during operation and wait at least 5 minutes after turn off to allow a safe cool down.

Following figure shows the basic power flow and losses in a servo drive system.

TritonGoPowerGraph

Power losses calculation (heat dissipation)

Current flowing through Triton Servo Drive causes power losses that, ultimately, are converted in heat. This heat must be transferred to its surrounding environment efficiently, so that the temperature of the drive does not reach dangerous levels. The greater the power losses, the more effective the heat dissipation must be. Power losses mainly depend mainly on 3 parameters:

  • Motor RMS current: this is the cause of what are called static or conduction power losses, which typically are the main source of power losses, having that they show a positive correlation in a squared ratio.
  • DC bus voltage: this, along with the motor RMS current and PWM switching frequency, is the cause of what are called dynamic or commutation losses, and show positive correlation in a proportional ratio.
  • PWM switching frequency: similar to DC bus voltage, the PWM switching frequency directly affects the commutation losses. Typically, 20 kHz is the default value, but it can be increased up to 80 kHz.

PWM switching frequency and nominal specifications

All nominal specifications in this manual are measured under a PWM switching frequency of 20 kHz.

Other less relevant parameters affect also the power losses but are not considered in the following graphs:

  • Air temperature: higher power semiconductor temperatures reduce their efficiency. 
  • Motor speed: faster motor speeds result in higher overall power losses since the input DC bus current is greater, and this increases conduction losses on the reverse polarity protection circuitry.

Current ratings

Power losses cause the drive to increase its temperature according to:

\( T_P \approx T_A + P_{LOSS} · Z_{θ PA}\)

As power losses have a positive correlation with the motor RMS current, when the ambient temperature rises, the output current must be limited to avoid an excessive drive temperature (T< 110 ºC). The threshold temperature where the current derating should start mainly depends on the DC bus voltage. Then, although a 1.2 ºC/W heatsink is required to reach the nominal current at the nominal DC bus voltage (48 V), the same nominal current can be reached with a less restrictive heatsink when DC bus voltage is lower. Also, other environmental parameters can relax the required heatsink thermal resistance to reach nominal current, typically:

  • Air flow around the drive.
  • Position (vertical allows natural convection).
Parameter Value Units Notes
Maximum power stage
temperature
110 ºC Measured on the PCB (not the heatsink) and accessible via register.
Thermal resistance from
power stage to heatsink
3.6 ºC/W Does not consider the thermal resistance of the heatsink, but assumes
the coldplate is a thermal conductor, not the thermal dissipator.
Thermal resistance from
power stage to air
13 ºC/W Considering the coldplate acting as the thermal dissipator (no heatsink
attached).
Temperature stabilization
time
> 60 s With 1.2 ºC/W heatsink attached. Considering 90 % of maximum
temperature.

This graphic shows the maximum current with respect to coldplate temperature, assuming a 1.2 ºC/W heatsink attached.

This graphic shows the maximum current with respect to ambient temperature, also assuming a 1.2 ºC/W heatsink attached.

Current derating

The current derating graph is only indicative and is based on thermal tests performed in a climatic chamber where there was enough room for natural air convection. Each application may reach different ratings depending on the installation, ventilation and/or housing.

Current derating is only a recommendation and is not performed automatically by the drive.

System temperature

Triton power stage integrates power MOSFET transistors. Switching them means charging and discharging thethose capacitors, and this is done thousands of times per second which results in power losses and a temperature increase even at 0 current. Therefore, a PCB temperature of 60 ºC or more might be measured, even while no current is passing through the motor, specially of the drive is not ventilated at all.

Recommendation: when motor is off, exit motor enable mode, as this will switch off the power stage.

Improving heat dissipation with a heatsink

A heatsink is required to reach the nominal current at any ambient temperatures (except for TRI-1/48-x-C). When using high efficiency heatsinks or in enclosed spaces the equation can be simplified as follows.

\( T_P \approx T_A + P_{LOSS} · (Z_{θ PC} + Z_{θ CH} +Z_{θ HA})\)

TritonGoThermalDiagram

Assembly recommendations for best heat dissipation

  • Always allow natural air convection by ensuring ≥ 10 mm air space around the drive.
  • Place Triton in inverted vertical position (with heatsink face up).
  • Use a good thermal interface material to improve the heat dissipation.
  • If housed, use a good thermal conductivity material, such as black anodized aluminum. Placing the drive in a small plastic package will definitively reduce its temperature range.
  • Temperature range can be increased by providing forced cooling with a fan. Always ensure electrical isolation between live parts and the heatsink.

Architecture

This diagram represent the main hardware elements of Triton Go, and how they relate to each other.

TritonGoArchitecture